AHRQ--Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Advancing Excellence in Health Care

Patient Safety Indicators Overview

What are Patient Safety Indicators?

The Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) provide information on potentially avoidable safety events that represent opportunities for improvement in the delivery of care. More specifically, they focus on potential in-hospital complications and adverse events following surgeries, procedures, and childbirth.

How are Patient Safety Indicators used?

The PSIs can be used to help hospitals assess the incidence of adverse events and in-hospital complications and identify issues that might need further study.

For more information about the Prevention Quality Indicators, download the Patient Safety Indicators Brochure.

Patient Safety Indicators Resources

  • Individual Measure Technical Specifications (v2018 and v2018.0.1 ICD-10-CM/PCS coding)

    Breaks down calculations used to formulate each PSI, including a brief description of the measure, numerator and denominator information, and details on cases that should be excluded from calculations.- New!

  • Individual Measure Technical Specifications (v6.0 ICD-9-CM only version)

    Breaks down calculations used to formulate each PSI, including a brief description of the measure, numerator and denominator information, and details on cases that should be excluded from calculations.

  • Parameter Estimates for v6.0 ICD-9-CM*

    Tables of PSI covariates and coefficients for risk adjustment logistic regression models.

  • Benchmark Data Tables for v6.0 ICD-9-CM*

    Tables of nationwide comparative rates for PSIs including observed rate, numerator, and denominator data for each indicator overall and stratified by sex, age group, and insurance status.

  • Log of Coding Updates and Revisions for the v2018 ICD-10-CM/PCS and v6.0 ICD-9-CM versions

    Tables summarizing revisions made to the PSI software, software documentation and technical specifications since the original release of these documents in November 2001.
    - New!

*Parameter Estimates and Benchmark Data will be published in the future once the risk adjustment is added to the ICD-10-CM/PCDS software.

To access prior versions of the PSI resources, visit the Archives page.

  • PSI 90 Fact Sheet

    The Patient Safety and Adverse Events Composite for the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) v6.0, 2016), is an updated and modified version of the Patient Safety Indicator for Selected Indicators Composite (v5.0 and prior).

  • AHRQ Composite Measures Workgroup

    This report summarizes the work of the PSI Composite Measure Workgroup, which assisted AHRQ in developing a composite measure based on the Patient Safety Indicators. For more information on Composite Workgroups, visit the AHRQ QI Composite Workgroups page.

  • AHRQ PSI Development

    How the PSI measure set was developed.

  • Retirement of the Area-Level Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs)

    Starting with V7.0 ICD-10-CM/PCS, all versions of the QI software will not include any area-level PSIs. For additional information, see the retirement announcement.

Quality Indicator Software

Visit the AHRQ QI Software Page for more information on the Quality Indicators SAS QI and WinQI software.

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